Q166: What is the limit separating
lawful from unlawful music? If the criterion is its being labeled
"entertainment or amusement," then this is not clear
according to convention because there are differences of opinion
A: The separating limit is its being of
suitable quality for the gatherings of amusement and of immorality.
(MMS, p. 28, Q53)
Q167: Also, regarding musical tunes,
what is the criterion for their prohibition? Is the criterion
their actual use in songs by people of immorality or is it enough
for them to be suitable for such purposes? Is there any difference
in situation if they are used during the commemoration of (Imam)
Husayn or Islamic songs, for example, etc.?
A: The rule also is their being suitable
for gatherings (of amusement and of immorality) and their prohibition
is absolutely not lifted by using them during the commemoration
or otherwise, based on precaution. (MMS, p. 28, Q54)
Q168: What is the ruling on so-called
music in present customary usage?
A: It is of two kinds. One of them suits
the places of amusement and entertainment and thus listening to
it is prohibited. The other one is other than this and therefore
is not prohibited. (FM, p. 437)
Q169: Some types of music are broadcast
before the recitation of the noble Qur'an or the adhan,
before the religious program begins or during. Is it permissible
to listen to it?
A: The great majority of them are of the
second type and thus are lawful. (FM, p. 437)
Q170: Musical interludes and music that
precedes announcement of the news.
A: The same applies. (same answer as
Q169) (FM, p. 438)
Q171: Some types of watches, in addition
to specifying the time, have musical pieces for the pleasure of
the owner whenever he wishes (to hear them). Is it permissible
to buy and sell them (watches), or even to listen to their music?
A: It is permissible. (FM, p. 438)
Q172: Is it permissible to listen to
Follow up: You mean religious phrases
that are composed with musical tunes that are common amongst the
people of amusement and entertainment?
A: It is prohibited to listen to them.
The same ruling applies to all phrases that are not for pleasure
and amusement -- such as supplication or dhikr --
but composed with these musical tunes. (FM, p. 437)
Q173: Classical music is believed to
soothe excited nerves, and is also prescribed at times for treatment
of some psychological ailments. Is it permissible for me to listen
A: Yes, it is permissible to listen to
music which is not suited for the gatherings of amusement and
entertainment. (FM, p. 438)
Q174: Music with pictures that is associated
with television films, popular serial programs, the aim of which
is to raise the degree of excitement of the viewers in accordance
with the atmosphere of the film. For example, if the exhibited
scene is frightening, then this music helps in prompting fear
and its effect on the viewers.
A: The great majority of them are of the
lawful type. (FM, p. 438)
Q175: . . . emotional and national
poetry that are at times accompanied by music.
A: The same criterion as was previously
mentioned (in Q168). (FM, p. 438)
Q176: The buying and selling of flutes,
musical recordings and the like, from among the instruments of
pleasure and amusement, is prohibited. However, there are instruments
made for children's amusement. Is it permissible to buy and sell
A: It is permissible as long as they are
not classified among the instruments of forbidden pleasure and
amusement. (FM, p. 411)
Q177: Is it permissible for a Muslim
to send his son to one of the musical institutes to study music
as a profession under the condition that he will not use his profession
for forbidden things?
A: There is no objection to studying lawful
music in itself, but in sending children to musical institutes
one should ensure that it does not negatively affect them in their
religious upbringing. God knows best. (MMS, p. 17, Q19)
Q178: Is it permissible for a wife
to dance for her husband in order to provide him happiness and
to excite him?
A: This is permissible for her. (FM,
Q179: . . . her dancing in front of
A: It is not permissible for her to dance
in front of any other but her husband amongst the men [rather,
it is not permissible for her to dance in front of women as well].
(FM, p. 436)
Q180: . . . a man dancing in front
of men or women other than his wife?
A: Likewise, it is not permissible. (FM,
Q181: Some schools in western countries
force the male and the female students to study the art of dancing.
This dancing is not linked with the popular music and is not
for amusement, but is part of the curriculum. Is it prohibited
for the parents to grant permission to attend these lessons?
A: Yes, if it contradicts religious training,
rather absolutely, based on precaution, with the supposition that
the student has attained the age of puberty (bulugh).
This holds except where he has a shar'i justification
for studying it in the case where he is following (taqlid)
the one whose ruling is that it is permissible. In that case,
there is no obstacle to permit him to do this. (MMS, pp. 25-26,
Q182: At a wedding and other joyous
occasions, men and women clap.
A: It is permissible for them, provided
that it does not include other forbidden things. (FM, p. 437)